What is Network Hub, Its Types And How It Works?
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What is Network Hub, Its Types And How It Works?

What is Network Hub, Its Types And How It Works?

When it comes to Networking How can we forget hub. Now the question arises that do you know what is Hub or Network Hub? A simple answer to this is that it is a very basic networking device.

Using this, multiple computers are connected to other networking devices. Hubs are common network infrastructure devices that are used for LAN connectivity, whereas switches have now started to replace hubs. Hubs function according to the central connection point of LANs.

These hubs are designed to work with twisted-pair cabling and they normally use the RJ45 jack to connect with other devices. Network devices such as (Servers, Workstations, Printers, Scanners, etc.) are attached to the hub through individual network cables.

Hubs come in many different shapes and also have different ports. They do not have any routing table of their own so that they do not know which node to send to them when any data comes. It only broadcasts data in multiple ports. Hubs operate in Layer-1 (Physical Layer) of the OSI data model.

At the same time, people have many doubts about Hubs. So today I will provided complete information about what is Hub so that you can know how this networking device works and what are its advantages and disadvantages. Then let’s start without delay.

What is Hub?

A hub is a device that splits a network connection into multiple computers. It is similar to a distribution center. When a computer requests for information from one network or a specific computer, it sends that request to the hub through a cable.

Then the hub receives that request and transmits it to the entire network. Every computer in that network then has to know whether the data that is broadcast is for them or not.

But now these Hubs are very less in circulation and are being replaced by more advanced communication devices such as Switches and Routers. This hub is a multi-port repeater.

This hub is used to connect multiple wires that come from different branches, for example, the connector which is used in a star topology and it is used to connect different stations.

Hubs cannot filter data, so data packets are sent to all connected devices. In other words, all the hosts connected with the hub have a collision domain one (1).

Apart from this, they do not even have their intelligence so that they can find the best path for the data packets so that ultimately their wastage and inefficiencies.

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Types of Hub

When it comes to the types of hubs, then they can be divided into three broad categories on technical bases. They are Passive hubs, active hubs, and intelligent hubs.

Passive hub

Passive Hubs are called to those hubs that collect from the nodes and power supply of the wiring active hub. These hubs relay signals to the network without having to clean and boost them, plus they cannot be used to extend the distance between nodes.

Just as its name is passive, similarly it only broadcasts signals through the input port, while it sends them through the output port.

At the same time, it does nothing to regenerate or process signals as it only acts as a connector to connect many wires in a topology.

Active hub

These are called active hubs that have their power supply and can clean, boost, and relay the signals themselves in the network. It serves as both a repeater and a wiring center.

They are used to extend the maximum distance between nodes. This active hub works more from a connector while it regenerates the data bits to ensure that the signals are strong or not. Active hub another name is a multi-port repeater.

It actively participates in a network as well as behaves like an interface. It can also easily monitor the data before forwarding them and sometimes it also improves the signals before forwarding them to other connections. Network problems can be easily solved by having such a feature.

Intelligent hub

An intelligent hub can easily perform all the tasks that a passive hub and active hub do, and together they help in managing network resources effectively so that network performance is highly efficient.

The actual location of the problem can be identified through an intelligent hub so that it can be eliminated from the root. It is very much adaptable to different technologies and it can be used without any changes in its configuration. This intelligent hub also performs many different functions such as bridging, routing, switching, and network management.

What is a network hub

A network hub is a networking device that is connected to multiple peripherals in a network and helps them function as a single-segment, unlike a switch or router, it broadcasts the data across each connection. Neither routes them to specific devices.

Network hubs also have different speeds, which are called network data rate or bandwidth. Whereas earlier older network hubs provided only 10 Mbps speeds, the current hubs provide speeds of up to 100 Mbps.

In today’s large networks, a dual-speed network hub must be used, and it comes in both 10 and 100 Mbps which provides connection points to computers and printers.

So before purchasing the hub, keep in mind that how many equipment’s are going to be connected with that network hub.

What are the features of Network Hub?

Do you know how many computers can be connected to a large hub? If we talk about a USB hub, then we can connect 127 devices to it and 32 to the network hub. Let us now know what are the features of the Network Hub.

  • It operates in half-duplex mode.
  • It is available in 4 to 24 port sizes.
  • Hosts are responsible for this only if there are collision detection and re-transmission of packets.

They are mainly of three types: –

  • Active hub
  • Passive hub
  • Intelligent hub

How the hub works

If we look in the right then a network hub is more a variable port repeater and not just a common link for a cluster of computers.

The very common operation of this is that whatever information it receives, it forwards it to all the PC terminals that are attached to it.

One major disadvantage in this is that there is a repetition of data in it so that unnecessary data traffic is sent to the network. Therefore, data is sent in bulk without identifying its destination.

How do hubs work?

Whereas if we compare it with switches then it works more efficiently, switches control the flow of data traffic in an organized manner. A switch is a very intelligent device. It easily identifies whom to send data to.

Transferring the right data packets to appropriate units increases network bandwidth. Therefore we can say that using the Switch in place of Hubs does not cause unnecessary data load in the network. With this unnecessary data flow, the same amount of information is sent to all the units whether they are needed or not.

Hubs are used more in small networks, whereas Switch is used in large networks. These network hubs are devices that operate in layer one (physical layer) of the OSI Model, while they operate in the switches layer 2 (data link layer) of the OSI model.

Often a switch and a hub are combined and used according to a switching hub, and this helps in getting the right data packets to the right place.

What are the uses of Hubs?

These network hubs can be used in place of switches as they are not very expensive. Apart from being cheap, they are used in many tasks.

  1. In some special cases, the hub is used in place of network taps so that the protocol analyzer can be effectively installed.
  2. The network hub is very efficient to receive a very large traffic load that comes for a cluster of computers.
  3. These are very easy to use. Similarly, if we had to use the switch instead of the hub, then we have to configure the switch settings first.
  4. They can be used to set up a loop, where it is necessary to provide a connection to the end-users in a presentation hall.
  5. Hubs can be used for network extension because network hubs further repeat each data packets whatever they are sent.
  6. Hubs are more commonly used in small networks.

How to set up a Network Hub in your home?

If you have to set up a network hub in your home, then for this you will have to do some important steps. Like first you have to bring an Internet connection from an ISP (Internet Service Provider).

Once your Internet connection is established, then you can connect your network hub with a modem, and for this, you can use a network cable (Cat5 or RJ-45).

After this, if you want, you can also connect another cable with your computer’s NIC (Network Interface Card). You can also do this with your other computers and printers, which are in your network.

Whereas if you have a wireless network, then you can use a wireless hub; Just ensure that your hub has as many wireless ports available as your connection.

What are the Advantages of the Hub?

Let’s know about the Advantages of Hubs.

➨ It can easily extend across the entire distance of the network.

➨ The use of these does not affect the performance of the network much.

➨ They are very cheap, so everyone can use them.

➨ Many different media types can be easily connected with them.

What are the Disadvantages of the Hub?

Let’s know about some of the disadvantages of Hubs

➨ It does not have many advanced mechanisms such as collision detection and re-transmission of packets.

➨ They do not operate in Full-Duplex Mode.

➨ It cannot connect with other network architectures such as token ring and Ethernet.

➨  And, It cannot be used to filter information i.e. It passes the packets to all connected segments.

➨ There is no mechanism to reduce network traffic.

What are Hub’s applications?

Networking Hub is a very widely used networking connectivity device. It has many advantages compared to other connectivity devices. Let us try to learn about some applications of Hub:

  • Hubs are used to create small home networks.
  • Hubs are used to monitor networks.
  • These Hubs are used for connectivity in many Organizations and Computer Labs.
  • By its use, it makes available a device or peripheral in the entire network.


I hope you have liked this article about what is Network Hub? It has always been my endeavor to provide complete information to the readers about how the hub works so that they do not have to search in other sites or the internet in the context of that article.

This will also save their time and they will also get all the information in one place. If you have any doubts about this article or you want that there should be some improvement in it, then for this you can write below in comment section.

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